Ilia Stambler. Life extension a conservative enterprise? Some fin-de-siecle and early twentieth-century precursors of transhumanism. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 21, 13-26, 2010.
The beginning of the modern period in the pursuit of radical human enhancement and longevity can be traced to fin-de-siecle/early twentieth-century scientific and technological optimism and therapeutic activism. The works of several authors of the period Fedorov, Stephens, Bogdanov, Nietzsche and Finot reveal conflicting ideological and social pathways toward the goals of human enhancement and life extension. Each author represents a particular existing social order, and his vision of human advancement may be seen as a continuation and extension of that order. Therefore, the pursuit of life extension may be considered a fundamentally conservative (or conservationist) enterprise.